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So we have catalogued nearly every outright lie he has told publicly since taking the oath of office. Updated : The president is still lying, so we've added to this list, taking it through Nov. His lack of truthfulness has also become central to the Russia investigation, with James Comey, the former director of the F. There is simply no precedent for an American president to spend so much time telling untruths.

Every president has shaded the truth or told occasional whoppers.

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No other president — of either party — has behaved as Trump is behaving. He is trying to create an atmosphere in which reality is irrelevant.

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Some people may still take issue with this standard, arguing that the president wasn't speaking literally. But we believe his long pattern of using untruths to serve his purposes, as a businessman and politician, means that his statements are not simply careless errors. Not every falsehood is deliberate on Trump's part. He is lying. The list above uses the conservative standard of demonstrably false statements.

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  8. In this method, two electrodes are attached to the scalp and positioned so that a weak current hits a selected brain area. To make the experimental situation as lifelike as possible, the team invented a role-playing game. They were told that some participants in the study would be innocent.

    After the theft, they were subjected to an interrogation. If they got through the interrogation without getting tangled up in contradictions, they could keep the money. They were advised to answer as many trivial questions as possible truthfully for example, giving the correct color of the jacket because nonguilty people might remember such details just as easily as thieves did but lie at decisive moments for example, when questioned about the color of the wallet.

    With this region inhibited, the ability to deceive improved markedly. Subjects in the test and control groups lied about as frequently, but those who received the stimulation were simply better at it; their mix of truthful answers and lies made them less likely to get found out.

    Their response times were also considerably faster. The researchers ruled out the possibility that brain stimulation had elevated the cognitive efficiency of the participants more generally. In a complicated test of attention, the test subjects did no better than the control group. One possible interpretation of the findings is that the electric current temporarily interrupted the functioning of the anterior prefrontal cortex, leaving participants with fewer cognitive resources for evaluating the ethical implications of their actions; the interruption allowed them to concentrate on their deceptions.

    Two follow-up studies conducted by other teams were also able to influence lying using direct current, although they used different experimental setups and target brain regions. But all the test subjects in these studies lied at essentially the press of a button.

    Whether electrically stimulating selected brain areas would work outside the laboratory is unknown. In any case, no instrument has yet been developed that can test such a hypothesis.

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    On the other hand, devices that supposedly measure whether a person is telling the truth—polygraphs—have been in use for decades. Such tools are desirable in part because humans turn out to be terrible lie detectors. In DePaulo and her colleagues summarized behavior studies, concluding that liars tend to seem more tense and that their stories lack vividness, leaving out the unusual details that would generally be included in honest descriptions.

    Liars also correct themselves less; in other words, their stories are often too smooth. Yet such characteristics do not suffice to identify a liar conclusively; at most, they serve as clues. In another analysis of multiple studies, DePaulo and a co-author found that people can distinguish a lie from the truth about 54 percent of the time, just slightly better than if they had guessed. But even those who encounter liars frequently—such as the police, judges and psychologists—can have trouble recognizing a con artist.

    Polygraphs are meant to do better by measuring a variety of biological signs such as skin conductance and pulse that supposedly track with lying. Gestalt psychologist Vittorio Benussi of the University of Graz in Austria presented a prototype based on respiration in the early s, and detectors have been refined and improved ever since. Even so, the value continues to be a matter of contention.

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    More recent criticisms have been leveled at their unreliability. Courts in other countries do accept results from lie-detector tests as evidence. The case of George Zimmerman, a neighborhood-watch volunteer who, in , shot a black teenager—Trayvon Martin—supposedly in self-defense, is well known. The police interrogation involved a particular variant of a lie-detector test that includes what is called computer voice-stress analysis. This analysis was later placed in evidence to prove the innocence of the accused, despite vehement scientific criticism of the method.

    Polygraphs do detect lying at a rate better than chance, although they are also frequently wrong. A questioning technique known as the guilty knowledge test has been found to work well in conjunction with a polygraph. The suspect is asked multiple-choice questions, the answers to which only a guilty party would know a technique very similar to the study involving the pickpocket role-playing described earlier.

    This method has an accuracy of up to 95 percent, with the innocent almost always identified as such. Although this test is by far the most precise technique available, even it is not perfect.

    Children Have to Learn How to Lie

    Recently experiments have been conducted to evaluate whether imaging techniques such as fMRI might be useful for detecting lies. The proposed tests mostly look at different activation patterns of the prefrontal cortex in response to true and false statements. In the U. One advertises itself as useful to insurance companies, government agencies and others. But fMRI approaches still have shortcomings. For one thing, differences in responses to lies and truths that become evident when calculating the average results of a group do not necessarily show up in each individual.

    Moreover, researchers have not yet been able to identify a brain region that is activated more intensely when we tell the truth than when we lie. That ambiguity can make it difficult to interpret fMRI readings. So far courts have rejected fMRI lie detectors as evidence.

    The Science of Lying

    The efficacy of the method has simply not been adequately documented. A machine that reads thoughts and catches the brain in the act of lying is not yet on the near horizon. Cues to Deception. DePaulo et al.

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    Joshua D. Greene and Joseph M. But we believe his long pattern of using untruths to serve his purposes, as a businessman and politician, means that his statements are not simply careless errors. Not every falsehood is deliberate on Trump's part. He is lying. The list above uses the conservative standard of demonstrably false statements. By that standard, Trump told a public lie on at least 20 of his first 40 days as president. But based on a broader standard — one that includes his many misleading statements like exaggerating military spending in the Middle East — Trump achieved something remarkable: He said something untrue, in public, every day for the first 40 days of his presidency.

    On days without an untrue statement, he is often absent from Twitter, vacationing at Mar-a-Lago in Florida, or busy golfing. The end of May was another period of relative public veracity — or at least public quiet — for the president. He seems to have been otherwise occupied, dealing with internal discussions about the Russia investigation and then embarking on a trip through the Middle East and Europe.

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    Washington Post reports Trump shared highly classified intelligence with Russians. After he reversed a campaign pledge and declined to label China a currency manipulator, he kept changing his description of when China had stopped the bad behavior. Initially, he said it stopped once he took office.